This paper describes the methods used in Ontario to assess pharmacists’ continuing competency, including the roles of learning portfolios, peer-review, and competency testing (written exam and OSCE). As part of the five year review of this program, the paper reports on self-assessment survey results and practice review results, as well as factors affecting pharmacist performance in the quality assurance process. Results indicate the highest performance was from pharmacists with fewer years since graduation, degrees from a North American school or college of pharmacy, and practicing in a hospital-based setting. The results show 86% of pharmacists were able to self-direct their learning versus 14% requiring guidance.
Austin Z, Croteau D, Marini A, Violato C. Continuous Professional Development: The Ontario Experience in Professional Self-Regulation through Quality Assurance and Peer Review. Amer J Phar Educ (2003); 67 (2): Article 56. http://ajpe.org/aj6702/aj670256/aj670256.pdf
This is a report, published by the Institute of Medicine , summarizes the need to reform the continuing education system for healthcare professionals. The report outlines specific concerns, including flaws in how CE is conducted, the inconsistent value of the science in current CE, a lack of interprofessional CE opportunity, and a lack of succinct vision for the future of CE. This report also advocates for the creation of a national interprofessional center to ensure CE is delivered at the highest possible level. Finally, it advises the creation of CPD for health professionals.
Redesigning Continuing Education in the Healthcare Professions. Institute of Medicine. December 4, 2009. Accessed online August 19, 2010. http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2009/Redesigning-Continuing-Education-in-the-Health-Professions/RedesigningCEreportbrief.pdf
This article makes a case for the importance of education in assisting practice. A self-directed learning process is described that includes identifying needs, being aware of the setting your learning will impact, stating objectives, planning activities, and evaluating work. The stated purposes of the article are to: explain the importance of the aforementioned 5-step learning process, better understanding effective learning strategies, identify how CPD fits into the big picture of learning, recognize the importance of being self-directed, and appreciate how there are a number of ways to learn. The article then describes the importance of a mentor, as well as specific components to this role.
Knox AB. Continuing Education for Pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc (1975); 15 (8): 442-7, 457.
This article outlines the summary of a task force convened to address continuing competence among pharmacy professionals. Five important concepts of continuing competence are outlined, and include: education and training, assurance to the public and the profession of initial and continued learning, involvement by the pharmacist in continual learning, desire and motivation to serve at the best possible level, and establishment of standards. Following this outline, the article discusses a number of perspectives on continuing competency that must be evaluated. Finally information is summarized on overall recommendations.
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy/American Pharmaceutical Association Task Force on Continuing Competence in Pharmacy. The Continuing Competence of Pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc (1975); 15 (8): 432-7, 457.
This site contains materials that describe the CPD process in detail, including materials related to: learning styles, use of reflection, acting, evaluating and recording CPD activities, CPD portfolios and frequently asked questions.
Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Continuing Professional Development. Accessed online September 1, 2010. http://www.acpe-accredit.org/ceproviders/CPD.asp
The Pharmaceutical Journal. About CPD. Accessed online September 1, 2010. http://www.pjonline.com/about_cpd This site requires registration, which is free. Numerous articles are providing covering topics such as professional standards for CPD, samples of pharmacists’ CPD work, and learning communities supporting CPD.